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喷施细胞分裂素对长豇豆产量及生理生化指标的影响

来源:  |   作者:   |  发布日期: 2018-05-25   |  阅读次数:552次

  

胡志辉,汪艳杰,陈禅友

(江汉大学 生命科学学院,湖北省豆类(蔬菜)植物工程技术研究中心,湖北 武汉 430056

 

[摘  要] 为提高长豇豆产量,在塑料大棚直播栽培条件下,以长豇豆柳翠、早翠、矮虎和地豆为材料,进行随机区组试验。在现蕾期叶面喷施细胞分裂素,分别于喷后7 d14 d28 d42 d取豇豆三出复叶的中间小叶测定叶绿素、丙二醛、脯氨酸和可溶性糖等生理生化指标,并比较喷施前后长豇豆的产量和叶片生理生化指标。结果表明:喷施细胞分裂素后7 d28 d各长豇豆品种叶片中游离脯氨酸含量比各对照品种分别提高89.04%73.44%,差异极显著;喷药后28 d42 d各长豇豆品种叶片中可溶性糖含量比各对照品种分别提高72%45.85%,差异极显著;喷药后14 d28 d各长豇豆品种叶片中丙二醛含量比各对照品种分别降低25.21%28.22%,差异极显著;喷药后42 d各长豇豆品种叶片中叶绿素含量比对照品种升高47.65%,差异极显著。喷药后,各长豇豆品种的产量均高于对照,喷施后平均增产13.99%,差异达极显著水平。喷施细胞分裂素能有效提高叶片游离脯氨酸、可溶性糖和叶绿素的含量,降低丙二醛含量,从而达到增产效果

[关键词] 细胞分裂素;长豇豆;脯氨酸;可溶性糖;丙二醛;叶绿素

[中图分类号] S643.4                 [文献标识码] A

 

Effect of Spraying Cytokinin on Yield and Physilogical Biochemical Traits of Cowpea

HU Zhi-huiWANG Yan-jieCHEN Chan-you

School of Life SciencesJianghan UniversityHubei Province Engineering Research Center for Legume PlantsWuhan 430056China

Abstract: This experiment was carried out controlling plant endogenous hormone system with chemical, which could guarantee quality genetic traitsenhance resistance, and raise the crop yield. With plastic greenhouse cultivation, cowpea such as Zaocui, Liucui, Aihu and the United States bean were provided by Hubei Province Engineering Research Center of Legume. By randomly blocks designing, foliar-spraying cytokinin at squaring stage, in 7 days, 14 days, 28 days and 42 days, respectively, the middle of ternate of cowpea was taken to measure content of chlorophyll, MDA, proline, soluble sugar and other physiological and biochemical indexes. Before and after foliar-spraying cytokinin, the difference of cowpea yield, physiological and biochemical index was compared, and then discussed the controlling effect of cytokinin. The results shows: after spraying cytokinin, at 7 d and 28 d, leaf proline content increase significantly by 89.04% and 73.44%, which indicates that spraying cytokinin increased free proline content of cowpea in the leaves; after spraying, soluble sugar content in the cowpea leaf increased significantly by 72% and 72% at 28 d and 42 d, respectively, which indicates that spraying cytokinin increased soluble sugar content of cowpea in the leaves; after spraying, MDA content of cowpea reduced significantly by 25.21% and 25.21%at 14 d and 28 d, respectively, which shows that spraying cytokinin significantly reduces MDA content of cowpea in the leaves; after spraying, chlorophyll content increased markedly by 47.65%at 42 d after spraying, which indicated that cytokinin inhibits chlorophyll declining and anti-aging. After spraying, the yield of long cowpea varieties were higher than CK; variance analysis showed that after spraying yield increased by 13.99%, shows that spraying cytokinin can effectively increase the output of cowpea.

Key words: cytokinin; cowpea; prolinesoluble sugar; MDA; chlorophyll

 

豇豆(Vignaunguiculata Linn.)属于豆科豇豆属,是我国重要的蔬菜作物。国内外大量研究表明,植物生长调节剂能控制徒长、增强代谢和提高产量[1-3],如Stephen[4]Brown[5]郑殿峰[6]研究了DAT26SODM等植物生长调节对作物生长的作用。已有研究表明[7-10]SHK-6PP333植物生长调节剂对大豆花荚数和产量有一定影响。在作物上,应用低浓度的 DTA26 (1140 mg/kg)可以促进碳水化合物代谢和物质积累,显著提高产量,并能改善作物品质[11-12]。针对豇豆的研究集中在逆境胁迫方面,喷施细胞分裂素对豇豆的影响研究鲜见报道[13-19]笔者在塑料大棚直播栽培条件下,以湖北省豆类(蔬菜)植物工程技术研究中心提供的长豇豆柳翠、早翠、矮虎和地豆为材料,在现蕾期叶面喷施细胞分裂素,分别于喷后7 d14 d28 d42 d取豇豆三出复叶的中间小叶测定叶绿素、丙二醛、脯氨酸、可溶性糖等生理生化指标,并测产量,研究喷施细胞分裂素对产量和叶片生理生化指标的调控效应。旨在探讨调节剂对豇豆落花落荚的影响为调节剂在豇豆高产优质栽培中的选用提供科学依据。

1  材料与方法

1.1  供试材料

1)豇豆:柳翠(鄂豇豆6号),植株蔓生,生长势强,分枝少;持续结荚能力强,单株结荚 14 个左右。早翠(鄂豇豆2号),植株蔓生,生长势旺,无分枝或1个分枝;始花节位34节,早熟;荚浅绿色,长圆条形。矮虎(鄂豇豆7号)、地豆(美国地豆)由湖北省豆类(蔬菜)工程技术研究中心提供。

2)供试植物生长调节剂:细胞分裂素为植物细胞分裂调节剂,由海南博士威农用化学有限公司生产,活性成分为羟烯腺嘌呤、烯腺嘌呤,稀释1000倍,喷洒于叶片表面。

1.3  试验设计

2015年播种于江汉大学湖北省豆类(蔬菜)植物工程技术研究中心基地,塑料大棚直播栽培,随机区组排列,3次重复,深沟高畦,畦面平整,畦宽1.33 m,畦植2行,穴距25 cm,每穴2株,小区面积18 m2。在现蕾期叶面喷施细胞分裂素作为处理组,叶面喷施清水为对照(CK)。分别于喷后7 d初花期)、14 d盛花期)、28 d盛荚期)和42 d终收期)分别选取小区内生长势一致的单株,取豇豆三出复叶的中间小叶进行叶绿素、丙二醛、脯氨酸和可溶性糖等生理生化指标的测定。按常规栽培技术进行田间管理。

1.4  测定项目与方法

各项目含量测定均参照文献[20]的方法进行。

1.4.1  叶绿素  将长豇豆叶片剪碎,取0.1 g放入10 mL混合提取液(V乙醇V丙酮V=4.5:4.5:1)中,在黑暗环境下浸泡提取,直至叶片完全变为白色为止,以提取液为对照,取浸提液分别在紫外分光光度计上测定OD645OD663。按以下公式计算叶绿素的含量:叶绿素(mg/g=(20.21×OD645+8.02×OD663)×V/(1000×

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